Interview questions and Answers for python Flask

Interview questions and Answers for python Flask

flaskInterview Questions
  1.  What is Flask and how is it different from other Python web frameworks?

Flask is a micro web framework for Python that is designed for small to medium-sized web applications. It is lightweight and easy to use, with a simple and flexible structure that allows developers to quickly create web applications. Flask is different from other Python web frameworks, such as Django and Pyramid, in that it is more minimalistic and does not include an ORM or built-in support for authentication, forms, and other features that are often included in full-featured frameworks.

  1. How do you handle routing and URL mapping in Flask?

In Flask, routing and URL mapping is handled using the @app.route decorator. This decorator is used to define the URL endpoint and the corresponding function that will handle the request. For example, to create a route for the homepage of your application, you would use the following code:

You can also use variables in the URL endpoint to capture specific values from the URL. For example, the following code creates a route for a user’s profile page:

  1. How do you handle forms in Flask?

Flask does not have built-in support for forms, but you can use the WTForms library to create and handle forms in your Flask application. First, you will need to install the WTForms library and create a form class that defines the fields and validation rules for your form. Then, you can use the form in your views to handle the form submission and validation.

  1. How do you handle sessions in Flask?

Flask provides a built-in session object that allows you to store data on a per-session basis. The session data is stored on the server and can be accessed using a session ID, which is passed to the client as a cookie.

To use sessions in Flask, you first need to set a secret key for the application, which is used to encrypt the session data:

You can then access the session object in your views:

  1. How do you handle database connections and queries in Flask?

Flask does not include an ORM or built-in support for database connections, but you can use a library such as SQLAlchemy or Peewee to handle database connections and queries in your Flask application. These libraries provide an ORM that allows you to interact with the database using Python objects, rather than writing raw SQL queries.

  1. How do you handle template rendering in Flask?

Flask uses the Jinja2 template engine to handle template rendering. You can create templates using the Jinja2 syntax, and then use the render_template function to render the template and pass in any data that you want to include in the template. For example, the following code renders a template called “index.html” and passes in a variable called “title”:

  1. What is the difference between a GET and a POST request in Flask?

A GET request is used to retrieve data from the server, while a POST request is used to submit data to the server. GET requests are typically used to retrieve information from a server, while POST requests are used to create or update information on a server. In Flask, you can handle GET and POST requests using the @app.route decorator, by specifying the methods that the route should respond to. For example, the following code creates a route that handles both GET and POST requests:

It’s worth noting that there are other HTTP methods such as PUT, DELETE, etc. that can be handled in the same way.

  1. Can you explain how flask handles the request and response cycle?

When a client makes a request to a Flask application, the request is passed to the Flask application’s routing system. The routing system then uses the @app.route decorators to match the requested URL with a defined endpoint, and calls the corresponding function to handle the request.

The function that handles the request can then perform any necessary actions, such as interacting with a database or processing form data. Once the function has completed, it returns a response to the client in the form of an HTTP response object. The response can include data, such as a rendered template or JSON data, as well as HTTP status codes and headers.

  1. How do you test a Flask application?

There are several ways to test a Flask application. One common approach is to use the unittest module from the Python standard library, along with the FlaskClient class from the flask.testing module. This allows you to create test cases for your application and test the different routes and functions.

Another approach is to use a third-party testing library such as pytest, which provides a simpler and more powerful syntax for writing tests.

  1. How do you deploy a Flask application?

There are several ways to deploy a Flask application, depending on your requirements and infrastructure. Some popular options include using a platform-as-a-service (PaaS) provider like Heroku or OpenShift, using a container orchestration platform like Kubernetes, or using a web server like Apache or Nginx to serve the application.

Another popular method is to use a framework like Gunicorn or uWSGI to run the application behind a reverse proxy, and use a web server such as Apache or Nginx to handle the requests and act as a reverse proxy for the application.

It’s also worth noting that there are other methods to deploy a flask application like using a cloud services like AWS, Google cloud, Azure etc. 

Additionally, you can use a tool like Docker to containerize your application, which allows you to package your application and its dependencies together in a portable and reproducible way, making it easy to deploy to a variety of environments.

It is important to consider the scalability and performance requirements of your application when choosing a deployment method. For example, if you expect to have a large number of concurrent users, you may need to use a load balancer or multiple instances of your application to handle the load.

Another important factor to consider is the security of your application, and how to protect it against common web application vulnerabilities such as SQL injection or cross-site scripting (XSS). Properly configuring your web server, using secure protocols such as HTTPS, and implementing proper input validation and sanitization can help protect your application.

In summary, while deploying a Flask application, you will have to take in consideration the scalability, performance, security and maintainability of the application to choose the right method that will best suit your requirements.

  1. How do you handle file uploads in Flask? 

Flask provides the request object to handle file uploads. The request.files attribute contains a dictionary of files uploaded in the current request. You can access the files using the form field name as the key.

For example, if you have a form that includes a file input field called “file”, you can access the uploaded file like this:

Once you have the file, you can do anything with it, such as saving it to disk, storing it in a database, or processing it in some way.

It is important to validate the file and check for errors before processing it.

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