Salient features of the constitution of India


The Constitution of India is the main law of the country and was made on 26th January 1950. It is a very long and detailed document that sets out how the country is governed. Here are The salient features of the Constitution of India.

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  1. Lengthiest Written Constitution: The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution in the world, containing 448 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules, and 5 appendices.
  2. Drawn from Various Sources: The Indian Constitution draws inspiration from various sources, such as the Government of India Act of 1935, the American and French Constitutions, and the writings of several Indian scholars and leaders.
  3. Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility: The Indian Constitution is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. It provides for both rigid provisions that require a special procedure to amend and flexible provisions that can be amended by a simple majority of the Parliament.
  4. Federal System with Unitary Bias: India follows a federal system of government where power is divided between the central government and the state governments. However, the Constitution also has provisions that give more power to the central government in certain circumstances, giving it a unitary bias.
  5. Parliamentary Form of Government: India follows a parliamentary form of government where the President is the head of the state, and the Prime Minister is the head of the government. The executive is responsible to the Parliament and can be removed by a vote of no confidence.
  6. Synthesis of Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy: The Indian Constitution provides for a synthesis of parliamentary sovereignty and judicial supremacy. While the Parliament is supreme in making laws, the judiciary has the power to interpret and enforce the Constitution.
  7. Integrated and Independent Judiciary: The Indian Constitution provides for an integrated and independent judiciary. The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal and has the power of judicial review over the actions of the government and the legislature.
  8. Fundamental Rights: The Indian Constitution guarantees several fundamental rights to its citizens, such as the right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, and right to constitutional remedies.
  9. Directive Principles of State Policy: The Indian Constitution includes Directive Principles of State Policy that are guidelines for the government to ensure the welfare of the citizens.
  10. Fundamental Duties: The Indian Constitution also includes Fundamental Duties that every citizen is expected to fulfill, such as respecting the Constitution and the national flag, promoting harmony and brotherhood, and protecting the environment.
  11. A Secular State: India is a secular country, and the Constitution provides for the separation of religion and state. All citizens have the right to practice and profess any religion of their choice.
  12. Universal Adult Franchise: The Indian Constitution provides for universal adult franchise, which means that all citizens who are 18 years or older have the right to vote.
  13. Single Citizenship: The Indian Constitution provides for a single citizenship for all Indian citizens, irrespective of their place of residence.
  14. Independent Bodies: The Indian Constitution provides for the establishment of several independent bodies, such as the Election Commission, the Comptroller and Auditor General, and the National Human Rights Commission, to ensure the proper functioning of the government.
  15. Emergency Provisions: The Indian Constitution provides for emergency provisions to deal with situations like war, external aggression, and internal disturbances.
  16. Three-Tier Government: India has a three-tier system of government, consisting of the central government, state governments, and local governments, to ensure better governance at all levels.
  17. Co-Operative Societies: The Indian Constitution recognizes the importance of co-operative societies in promoting economic and social development and provides for their establishment and functioning.

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